Updated: Sep 8, 2021
The origin of Bhartiya Itihaasa goes back to thousands of years in past when all the Sanatan Dharma scriptures were written to make human life better in all senses. These includes Vedas, Puranas, Aranyakas, Upanishadhas, Shlokas, Smrutis, Shreemad Bhagwat Geeta, Ramaayan, Mahabharat and more.
Here, we will be talking about 'Puranas'. Puranas are amongst ancient Hindu scriptures which were written by Rushis in the narration with Devas himself. There are mainly eighteen Puranas and all of them has specific type of knowledge of the philosophy of life, events happened, facts and stories. We will be explaining them in a brief.
1. Bramha Puran:- Bramha puran is the first puran which also known as 'Aadi Puran' has a description about birth of 'bhagwan Bramha Dev an maker of the universe' primarily, also it describes about Universe, birth of Manu, Dev, all living animals, Vansha in the form of story telling in which 'bhagwan Bramha Dev' narrates and 'Rushi Marich' listens.
2. Padma Puran:- Padma puran mainly give emphasis on the glory of 'bhagwan Vishnu' and has brief description about the personality of bhagwan Vishnu's avataras Shree Ram and Shree Krushna, also it has description of earth, space and stars. Here, Padma means lotus. As we all know bhagwan Bramha Dev came into existence from the lotus which was rise from the navel of Shree Hari and an order to make universe was given by Shree Hari to bhagwan Bramha Dev, Padma puran's meaning falls under this.
3. Vishnu Puran:- Vishnu puran itself define its meaning, it was written by 'Rushi Parashar'. In Vishnu puran bhagwan Vishnu described as immortal, in-destructible and singular. It has a description of earth, space, oceans, sun, birth of Devas, Kalpa (a day of bhagwan Bramha i.e. 4,320,000,000 years on earth).
4. Vayu Puran:- In Vayu puran bhagwan Vayu Dev preached responsibilities during Sveta Kalpa i.e. fifty first day of bhagwan Bramha Dev (22,432 Kalpa + 22,432 Praylpa), it has story of Tripura Sundari and Gangavataran. It also says about positive and negative points of kings and it has mention of Vishvamitra narrative and Varnashram. Vayu puran is said to be the part of Dhiv puran or Bramhan puran but according to the list of Narad puran it is individual as others are.
5. Shiv Puran:- Shiv puran contains the glory of bhagwan Mahadev, it covers all the avatars of bhagwan Mahadev, all the Jyotirlingas, devotees and their beliefs towards bhagwan Mahadev. Also, it has mention about bhagwan Mahadev's personality including their marriage and children.
6. Bhagwat Puran:- Bhagwat puran was written by Rushi Ved Vyas with the help of Narad Muni, it is based on bhagwan Vishni's avtar Shree Krushna. It covers all the aspects of personality of Shree Krushna including detailed description on their birth, family, love, role in Mahabharat yudha, destruction of Dwarka Nagari and Yadav Kul, Dehatyag.
7. Naarad Puran:- Narad puran is basically a summary of all the eighteen puranas. Although, it also has description about Astrology, Mantras and to make them powerful i.e. Mantra Sidhhi, rules of the rituals to be performed after death, seven notes of singing including mention of Shudhha and Kut tan, knowledge of Swar Mandal i.e. Music Theory. Narad puran is also known as Mahapuran.
8. Mrakandeya Puran:- Markandeya puran is oldest among all of these. It has detailed description about family life responsibilities, beliefs, routine, fasts, festivals etc. It has also mention about glory of Devi Durga maa and stories of Shree Krushna.
9. Agnee Puran:- Agnee puran was spoken by bhagwan Agnee Dev to Rushi Vashishtha. It has description of literature and wisdom. in the description it covers about all the avatars of bhagwan Vishnu, Shivlinga, Maa Durga, Shree Ganesh, Sun, life, pride etc. It has tremendous knowledge about Geography, math, astrology, marriage, death, Science of dwelling, Ethics, correct knowledge, Military tactics, responsibilities, ethology, passion, poetry, grammar and Ayurveda.
10. Bhavishya Puran:- Bhavishya puran describes why Sun is important and how the twelve months were formed in a year. In its description it also says about dynasty of kings, dynasty of Nand, Maurya, Chalukya etc. and stories about Vikarm Vetal and Vetal Pacchisi. It also gives brief knowledge of almost all snakes identities and cure of their venom.
11. Bramhavaivarta Puran:- In Bramhavaivarta puran we find the detailed description about the life of Shree Krishna. It covers glory of Shree Krishna, Shree, glory of Devas, meditation and worship it also mentions information about Ayurveda. Bramhavaivarta puran is also known as tenth puran in Vedic road.
12. Linga Puran:- Linga puran is in two parts, its claims unique place in all puranas. It describes all twenty eight avatars of bhagwan Mahadev and stories of how all the 'Lingas' came to existence and stories of 'Rudravtar' or aggressive avatar of bhagwan Mahadev. It is said that mere listening to Linga puran one can get cleanse and go to 'Shivdham' after death without suffering.
13. Varah Puran:- Varah puran describes about bhagawan Vishnu's Varah avatar, it covers all the stories of Varah avatar. It describes Sun's Northward and Southward movements or summer solstice and winter solstice, Moon eclipse and Full-moon. Bhagwat Geeta was also mentioned in Varah puran.
14. Skanda Puran:- The word Skanda has meaning destruction or corrosion, the name of bhagwan Mahadev's elder son bhagwan kartikeya is also known as bhagwan Skanda. Shanda puran is based on bhagwan Kartikeya or bhagwan Skanda. It describes twenty seven constellation, eighteen rivers of Bharat, twelve Jyotirlingas, how Ganga came into existence, and mountain ranges and stories of Kanyakumari Mandir, story of Somdev ,Tara and emergence of planet Mercury.
15. Vaman Puran:- Vaman puran is description of Vaman avatar of bhagwan Vishnu, it covers Shivling worship, narration about bhagwan Shree Ganesh and bhagwan Kartikeya or bhagwan Skanda, stories about bhagwan Mahadev & Mata Parvati, bhagwan Narayan or bhagwan Vishnu & Maa Lakshmi, Maa Durga, bhkta Pralhad, Sudama, pageant of bhagwan Mahadev, aggressive avatar of bhagwan Hari or bhagwan Vishnu, character description of Maa Lakshmi including different types of fasts or 'Vrat'.
16. Kurma Puran:- Kurma puran has description of bhagwan Vishnu's Kurma avatar that bhagwan Vishnu took for churning ocean with Mandirachal mountain. Kurma puran covers the summary of all four Vedas including the preaching given by bhagwan Vishnu in Kurma avatar, bhagwan Bramha, bhagwan Vishnu, bhagwan Mahadev, birth of earth, emergence of Ganga and four stages of human life.
17. Matsya Puran:- Matsya puran itself define its title, it is an description of Matsya avatar of bhagwan Vishnu to defend all the life from mega flood. It describes the list of kings at the time of mega flood. It also said that mere listening to Matsya puran one can get longevity of life and gets cleanse.
18. Garud Puran:- Garud puran describes about eighty four lakh 'Yonis' suffering in their life. It also has description about all the avatars of bhagwan Vishnu, worship. penance and mantras. It includes theology, ethics, astrology and yoga.